Submarine CablesThe Illustrated London News, vol. 47, no. 1332, p. 223.
September 2, 1865
Submarine Cables.--In Europe, Asia, Africa, and Australia there are fifty-two submarine cables, which are of the aggregate length of 5625 miles, and the insulated wires of which measure 9783 miles. The longest of these is 1550 fathoms, and the shortest 1½ fathom. There are ninety-five submarine cables in the United States and British North America, which measure sixty-eight miles, and their insulated wires 133 miles. The overland telegraph line between New York and the west coast of Ireland, through British Columbia, Northern Asia, and Russia will be 20,479 miles long, 12,740 miles of which are completed. It has at length been resolved that this line shall cross from America to Asia at the southern point of Norton Sound, on the American side to St. Lawrence Island, and thence to Cape Thadeus on the Asiatic continent. Two submarine cables will be required for this--one 135 miles long and the other 250 miles long. Cape Thadeus is 1700 miles from the mouth of the Amoor River. The following are some of the submarine cables in operation, with their length in statute miles, viz.:--Dover and Calais, 27 miles; Denmark, across the Belt, 18 miles; Dover and Ostend, 80½ miles; Firth of Forth, 6 miles; Portpatrick and Donaghadee, 25 miles; across River Tay, 2 miles; Portpatrick and Whitehead, 27 miles; Sweden and Denmark, 12 miles; Italy and Corsica, 110 miles; Corsica and Sardinia, 10 miles; Egypt, 10 miles; Italy and Sicily, 5 miles; Newfoundland and Cape Breton, 85 miles; Prince Edward Island and New Brunswick, 12 miles; Strait of Canso and Cape Breton, N.S., 1½ mile; Norway, across fiords, 49 miles; across months of Danube, 3 miles; Ceylon and mainland of India, 30 miles; England and Holland, 140 miles; England and Hanover, 280 miles; Norway, across fiords, 16 miles; South Australia and King's Island, 140 miles; Alexandria, 2 miles; England and Denmark, 368 miles; Sweden and Gothland, 64 miles; Folkestone and Boulogne, 24 miles; across rivers in India, 10 miles; Malta and Sicily, 60 miles; England and the Isle of Man, 36 miles; Suez and Jubal Island, 220 miles; Jersey and Pireu, in France, 21 miles; Tasmania and Bass Strait, 240 miles; Denmark and Great Belt, 28 miles; Dacca and Pegu, 116 miles; Barcelona and Mahon, 180 miles; Minorca and Majorca, 35 miles; Iviza and Majorca, 74 miles; St. Antonio and Iviza, 76 miles; Norway, across fiords, 16 miles; Toulon and Corsica, 195 miles; Holyhead and Howth, 64 miles; Malta and Alexandria, 1535 miles; Newhaven and Dieppe, 80 miles; Pembroke, Wales, and Wexford, 63 miles; Sardinia and Sicily, 243 miles; Otranto and Avalona, 62 miles; Faho and Kurrachee, 1450 miles; Sweden and Prussia, 55 miles; and Algiers and Sicily, 259 miles. The oldest submarine cable has been working fourteen years and the youngest about six months. The largest number of conductors is nine and the smallest one. The lowest depth of water is in the case of the Toulon and Corsica, which is 1550 fathoms; and the next the Barcelona and Mahon, 1400 fathoms, until they reach about fourteen fathoms of water.