Foreign IntelligenceThe Illustrated London News, vol.41, no.1165, p.302.
September 20, 1862
By the arrival of the Hibernian and the City of Washington we have telegrams viâ Cape Race until the evening of the 8th inst.
On the 30th ult. the Confederates under Jackson, Longstreet, and Ewell were reinforced by the reserve under General Lee, and resumed the offensive. The Confederates gained the advantage, and General Pope fell back in good order to Centreville, where he was joined by two fresh divisions under Generals Franklin and Sumner. The loss of Federal officers in this last battle was enormous, comprising Brigadier-General Stevens and a long list of Colonels, among whom was Fletcher Webster, the only surviving son of the late Daniel Webster. The Federal left wing was driven back, thrown into confusion by the shells of the enemy. General M'Dowell then advanced in support and endeavoured to hold the Federal centre, but the Confederates anticipated his movement, and Generals Siegel and M'Dowell became enveloped by the Confederates and were outnumbered at all points. General Siegel behaved with great bravery and his troops with steadiness, but General M'Dowell's troops broke in panic and retreated across Bull Run. The Federal right remained comparatively firm, and prevented the Confederates following up their advantage. The Federal wounded were left to the care of the enemy.
On the 2nd inst. General Pope evacuated Centreville, and the whole Federal army fell back within the fortifications around Washington, the several army corps occupying the same relative positions which they held before their departure for the peninsula.
Engagements occurred on the 1st between Kearney's brigade and the Confederates under Colonel Stewart, two miles and a half west of Fairfax Courthouse. The Confederates were repulsed, but the Federal Generals Kearney and Stevens were killed.
The Confederates were at first massed in force at Vienna, twelve miles from Washington, but have since mostly withdrawn.
A Confederate force, 5000 strong, crossed the Upper Potomac at Point of Rocks and occupied Frederick City, in the State of Maryland. They were enthusiastically received by the Secessionist inhabitants, but the Unionists left the town. They have promised to protect all private property.
The Governor of Pennsylvania, fearing that the Confederates will push into Pennsylvania and destroy the Western Central Pennsylvanian Railroad, has forwarded large bodies of troops to the entrance of Cumberland Valley to resist the invasion, and has called on the people throughout the State to form volunteer organisations. The Confederate pickets extend from Frederick seven miles towards Hagerstown. Large bodies of Federal troops are being transported from Washington to the Upper Potomac.
The Confederate movements in Frederick have cut off the Federal troops at Martinsburg and Harper's Ferry. These were attacked by a body of Confederates and succeeded in repulsing them.
General Burnside evacuated Fredericksburg on the 31st ult., after burning the Government property and the bridges, and retreated to Acquia Creek under cover of the gun-boats on the Potomac. He has since evacuated Acquia Creek.
The Federal flotilla, after destroying all the buildings on City Point, near Richmond, left the James River and returned to the Potomac. Some of the gun-boats had approached within view of Washington.
General Pope has been relieved from the command of the army in Virginia, and is assigned to the command in the north-west. General M'Clellan is placed in command of what may again be termed the "grand army of the Potomac." General M'Clellan has in his favour the opinion of the army; on the other hand he is denounced as incompetent by leading Republican journals. General Pope was unpopular with the army.
Secretary Stanton had resigned his position in the Cabinet. General Halleck, the Commander-in-Chief, had been appointed his successor.
The New York war committee propose to raise two armies of 50,000 men each, to be commanded by Generals Fremont and Mitchel. They are to be raised under Federal authority, but, if Government refuses them, under some other authority.
General Halleck has refused to call out the New York City Militia, asserting that they declined to remain when the danger of Washington was more imminent than now. All the colonels of the militia regiments indignantly deny this statement.
Recruits are pouring into Washington at the rate of seven thousand a day. The draughting order had not yet been carried out anywhere.
In the west the Federal cause is also under a cloud. The Federals have evacuated Lexington, Cynthiana, and Frankfort, in Kentucky. The Confederates have taken possession of the former place. The Union Legislature of this State had fled to Louisville, carrying with them the State archives.
These movements have caused immense excitement in Cincinnati. All the male citizens have been called out for the defence of the city, and all business suspended. Martial law has been proclaimed in that city, Covington, and Newport. The Governor of the adjoining State of Indiana has ordered out all citizens between nineteen and forty-five years of age, residing in the border counties, to repel invasion.
Nashville, Tennessee, has also been evacuated by the Federals and occupied by the Confederate General Bragg.
The Federals have fallen back from Bâton Rouge upon New Orleans. General Butler has called out the Free Negro militia, organised under the Louisiana State Government. This city is threatened by Generals Van Dorn and Breckinridge.
Another English steamer has been captured off Charleston.
In the Confederate Congress resolutions have been introduced favouring an aggressive war, and also proposing that a proclamation be addressed to the inhabitants of the north-western States offering to guarantee the free navigation of the Mississippi and Ohio Rivers to their mouths if they will desist from further prosecuting the war.
the Confederate ram Merrimac No. 2 has been seen below Fort Darling, going in the direction of Newport.
It is officially announced that whenever coupons of Federal stock are payable in foreign countries no deduction will be made for the tax, but on dividends and coupons payable in America the tax will be deducted without regard to the residence of the owner.
The Governors of Maine, New Hampshire, Massachusetts, and Rhode Island are holding council in Providence, with what object is unknown.
H.P. Anderson, an attaché of the British Legation at Washington, had arrived at Memphis and recommended all British subjects to make declaration of their nationality within fourteen days before the Provost-Marshal. By this means it is hoped that British subjects will be exempted from many of the inconveniences of the state of war. General Sherman publishes a card saying that British subjects must send in their names.
Under the influence of the Federal disasters the premium on gold has risen to 19 per cent.