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The Civil War in America

The Illustrated London News, vol. 39, no. 1113, p. 393.

October 19, 1861

the steam-ship City of New York we have received advices from New York to the 5th inst.

BELLIGERENT OPERATIONS.

The Confederate forces opposite Washington have evacuated their lines and fallen back on Manassas Junction. The Federals have advanced and occupied the deserted positions. Great devastation was committed by the Federal troops on the property of the resident population, quite irrespective of their politics. General M'Clellan has issued an order denouncing these excesses, and menacing the perpetrators with the penalty of death. The intrenchments thrown up by the Confederates were of a very inferior kind, and excite the contempt of the Unionists.

The telegram published in the daily journals that General Mansfield had "surprised" General Wool at Fortress Monroe is a mistake, and must mean "succeeded," as General Wool has left Fort Monroe for Washington, and General Mansfield is a Federal General, lately chef d'état under General Scott.

In Western Virginia the Federals have had two successful engagements with the Confederates. In that which took place in the Kanawha Valley they claim to have killed sixty of the Confederates and to have taken seventy prisoners.

In Kentucky a new and immense battle-field has been opened. From Cumberland Gap on the east, to the Mississippi on the west-a distance of more than 300 miles, the Confederates occupy a line of posts. In Northern Kentucky they are confronted by a parallel line of Union camps. General Anderson, who is in feeble health, has been superseded in command of the Federal forces in Kentucky by General Sherman. A collision may occur at any moment.

General Fremont has taken the field in Missouri, and is in pursuit of General Price. General Price has evacuated Lexington and gone southward, hoping to cut off General Siegel. Lexington is again occupied by Federal troops. General Price reports that his entire loss in the capture of Lexington was 25 killed and 72 wounded. About 3500 prisoners, including 4 colonels, 1 major, and 118 other commissioned officers, 5 pieces of artillery and 2 mortars, over 33,000 stand of infantry arms, a large number of sabers, about 750 horses, many sets of cavalry equipments, wagons waggons , teams, ammunition, more than 100,000 dollars' worth of commissary stores, the great seal of state, the public records, and about 900,000 dollars in money were the fruits of this victory. The money was restored to the bank from which the Federalists had taken it.

The report that several vessels had run the blockade at the mouth of the Mississippi is unfounded; but the British steamer Bermuda, freighted with blankets and warm clothing for the Confederate army, had succeeded in getting into Savannah. She cleared from Liverpool for the West Indies. The Federal gun-boat Fanny, of which a Sketch is given in our Issue this week (at page 411), has been captured by the Confederates inside Hatteras, near Roanoke Island.

GENERAL FREMONT'S POSITION.

Colonel Blair has been released from custody on the order of General Scott, as General Fremont neglected to file his charges against the insubordinate Colonel. A rumour prevailed that he had been removed from his command by the authorities at Washington. Great excitement at St. Louis was the result. Recruiting offices were closed, and indignation meetings were called. A telegram from Mr. Seward, assuring the people that General Fremont was not ordered to Washington, nor was any court-martial ordered concerning him, quieted the public apprehensions.

The course of the President in canceling cancelling the liberating clause of General Fremont's proclamation is still much canvassed by the public. The Democrats and Conservative Republicans support the President; the Abolitionists and Radical Republicans support Fremont. Parker Pillsbury writes in the Anti-Slavery Standard:— "political flumes, floodgates, and embankments are now all swept away, and one whelming deluge of devotion to the Union, as it was, with slavery eternised, is now sweeping over the country from ocean to ocean. Only the pebble-stone protest of a few faithful Abolitionists (alas, how very few!) any longer obstruct its terrible course."

ARMY NEWS.

The Governor of Iowa having commensed to draft troops, the Secretary of War has forbidden the practice, expressing his confidence in the patriotism of the people to supply volunteers enough for the war. The State of New York has not yet contributed two-thirds of the 25,000 men demanded of her under the last call for volunteers. Recruiting for the regular army is an entire failure, not above six men a week being obtained in New York City. The Government find no difficulty in obtaining sailors. The reports of the sick and wounded in the Federal hospitals at Washington, Georgetown, and Alexandria on the 27th ult. showed the number remaining to be 961. There was a great scarcity of blankets for the Federal army, and the Quartermaster-General was calling on the public to furnish supplies.

TRADE AND FINANCE.

The second installment instalment of 50,000,000 dollars has been taken by the banks of the three principal Atlantic cities, in the old proportion and on the old terms—namely, 7-10ths by New York, 2-10ths by Boston, and 1-10th by Philadelphia. The public, between Aug. 19 and Sept. 21, had taken 18,934,000 dols. of the loan, which was paid back by the Government to the banks. This sum had been taken in this ratio:—At New York, 10,640,000 dols.; Boston, 5,000,000 dols; Philadelphia, 2,294,000 dols.; other agencies, say, 1,000,000 dols.

The export of grain to England and France continues very large, and exchange on England has fallen to 107.

THE FREE NEGROES.

The following statistics of the free blacks resident in the United and Confederate States have been compiled from the recent census returns. The number in the free-labour States, the district of Columbia, and the Territories is 223,073; in the adhering Slave States, 116,750; in the eleven Seceded States, 131,401: grand total, 481, 115. The free blacks in the Free-labour States are thus distributed. The six New England States, 23,141; New York, 47,998; New Jersey, 24,947; Pennsylvania, 56,373; Ohio, 36,225; Indiana, 10,869; six other North-Western States, 17,248; California and Oregon, 3947; district of Columbia, 11,107; the Territories, 229. In the adhering Slave States—Maryland, 83,718; Delaware, 19,723; Kentucky, 10,146; Missouri, 2982. In the Seceded States there are—Virginia, 57,579; North Carolina, 30,097; Louisiana, 18,638; South Carolina, 9648; seven other Confederate States, 15,439.

MISCELLANEOUS.

Mr. Charles Sumner, of Massachusetts, has made a speech before the Republican Convention at Worcester favourable to the idea of making the war one of liberation to the slaves as the only means of obtaining a solid peace. Mr. Sumner is the first professional politician who has taken this ground.

Ex-President Buchanan has published a letter in favour of a vigorous prosecution of the war for the restoration of the Union.

Prince Napoleon sailed from Boston for St. John's and Havre on the 26th ult.

The New York Herald announces its average daily circulation to be 102,000. On the day after the fall of Fort Sumter the impression amounted to 135,000, the largest ever issued. In the three days succeeding the battle of Bull Run the daily sale was 122,740, 128,160, and 117,840 respectively. The Tribune of the same city announces its circulation to be—of its daily edition, 55,000; semi-weekly, 22,000; weekly,189,000.

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